A bone marrow biopsy is a test that examines the bone marrow. It is commonly recommended to diagnose and monitor a variety of conditions. A bone marrow biopsy can also be used to diagnose or determine the extent of some types of cancer.  A bone marrow biopsy is done through a procedure called “bone marrow aspiration and biopsy”. This is the technique used to obtain a sample of the marrow, the blood forming portion of the inner core of the bone.

A bone marrow aspiration is usually taken from the pelvic bone (ilium). This is accessible from the lower back, near the hip. Bone marrow can also be taken from the front of the pelvic bone (near the groin) or the sternum (the center bone in the chest).

A bone marrow aspiration is done with a local anesthetic to numb the skin and tissue down to the bone. A small cut (about a quarter inch) is made in the skin. A special needle is used to puncture the bone. Once inside the bone, the center portion of the needle is removed and a syringe is attached to the end of the needle and the marrow (which is liquid) is withdrawn. For a bone marrow biopsy, a core of tissue is trapped inside the center needle before it is removed. The samples are prepared and sent to the laboratory for analysis.

After the bone marrow biopsy procedure is complete, a band-aid is applied to the site. There are no special precautions that need to be taken after a bone marrow aspiration. However, the site may feel sore (like a bad bruise) for several days. This discomfort can be managed with over-the-counter pain medications recommended by your doctor. Please download the instructions that you may need to follow at home after the completion of this procedure.